Created by Leilani Carbonell
Last Updated - April 2004

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As the 50s brought competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, the 80s rival in terms of technological advancement and superpower status turned towards Japan and West Germany. As a result American schools shifted to a Cognitive domain.


  • (1980) Seymour Papert publishes Mindstorms
  • (1983) MD Merrill established The Component Display Theory. Component Display Theory specifies four primary presentation forms: rules, examples, recall and practice as well as prerequisites, objectives, helps, mnemonics, and feedback.
  • (1983) Howard Gardner publishes Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • (1984) Apple Macintosh computer introduced
  • (1984) David Kolb publishes Experiential Learning: Experiences as the Source of Learning and Development
  • (1987) Hypercard develped by Bill Atkinson
  • growth of users of microcomputers/personal computers
  • computer-based instruction
  • adoption of instructional systems development by American businesses
  • expansion of systems concept - performance technology
  • Larry Cuban writes How Teachers Taught: Constancy and Change in American Classrooms 1880-1980


Seymour Papert

  • Papert is a firm believer of inquiry and project-based curriculum. He advocates the idea of collaboration and meaningful projects. In a recent interview with the George Lucas Educational Foundation (, Papert said that he tries to “develop kinds of activities that are rich in scientific, mathematical, and other contents that are managerial and project skills, and which mesh with interests that particular kids might have.”


Performance Technology

  • incorporates the design of non-instructional solutions to human performance problems

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Created by Leilani Carbonell
Last Updated - April 2004