Mrs. Brown's Chemistry Classes
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FDOE Chemistry Standards and Benchmarks

Chemistry I & Chemistry I Honors

Florida D.O.E. Standards & Benchmarks



Unit 1:  Nature of Science


Note:  Although typically taught at the beginning of the Chemistry program, these Essential Learnings are also integrated into the program throughout the year.  For example, the Essential Learnings from Atomic Structure Timeline activity could be incorporated into Unit 3 Atomic Structure.


Unit 1A: Processes of Science


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.1.1:  Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics and earth/space science, and do the following:

  1. pose questions about the natural world
  2. conduct systematic observations
  3. examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known
  4. review what is known in light of empirical evidence
  5. plan investigations
  6. use tools to gather, analyze and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs)
  7. pose answers, explanations or descriptions of events
  8. generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences)
  9. use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others
  10. communicate results of scientific investigations, and
  11. evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.

(DOK:  High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.1.2:   Describe and explain what characterizes science and its methods.     (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.1.5:  Describe and provide examples of how similar investigations conducted in many parts of the world result in the same outcome.   (DOK:  Moderate)

Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.1.6:  Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:   SC.912.N.1.7:   Recognize the role of creativity in constructing scientific questions, methods and explanations.    (DOK:  Low)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.3.1:  Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena: thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.   (DOK:  High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.3.3:  Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.3.4:  Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories: theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions.   (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.3.5:  Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

 (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  LA.910.2.2.3:  The student will organize information to show understanding or relationships among facts, ideas, and events (e.g., representing key points within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, comparing, contrasting or outlining).    (DOK: not available)


Essential Learning:  LA.910.4.2.2:  The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information.   (DOK: not available)

Unit 1B:  Chemistry & Scientific Knowledge


Essential Learning:  SC.912.E.5.1:  Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the Big Bang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universe.   (DOK:  High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.2.1:  Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and what superficially resembles science (but fails to meet the criteria for science).   (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.2.2:   Identify which questions can be answered through science and which questions are outside the boundaries of scientific investigations, such as questions addressed by other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, and religion.    (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.2.3:  Identify examples of pseudoscience (such as astrology, phrenology) in society.   (DOK:  Low)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.2.4:  Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change.  Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation.  Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability. 

 (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912. N.2.5:  Describe instances in which scientists’ varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that they make about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competing interpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are a source of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to support one of another of the explanations.   (DOK:  High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.3.2:  Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.4.1:  Explain how scientific knowledge and reasoning provide an empirically-based perspective to inform society’s decision making.   (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.1.3:  Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.   (DOK:  Low)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.1.4:  Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.   (DOK:  High)

Unit 1C:  Chemistry & Measurement


Essential Learning:  SC.912.L.15.2:  Discuss the use of molecular clocks to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.    (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  MA.912.S.1.2:  Determine appropriate and consistent standard of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  MA:912.S.3.2:  Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following:

  • bar graphs
  • line graphs
  • stem and leaf plots
  • circle graphs
  • histograms
  • box and whisker plots
  • scatter plots
  • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs

Unit 1D:  Chemistry & Societal Issues


Essential Learning:  SC.912.L.16.10:  Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society and the environment, including medical and ethical issues.   (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.L.17.11:  Evaluate the costs and benefits of renewable and nonrenewable resources, such as water, energy, fossil fuels, wildlife and forests.    (DOK:  High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.L.17.15:  Discuss the effects of technology on environmental quality.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.L.17.16:  Discuss the large-scale environmental impacts resulting from human activity, including waste spills, oil spills, runoff, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, and surface and groundwater pollution.    (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.L.17.19:  Describe how different natural resources are produced and how their rates of use and renewal limit availability.   (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.17.20:  Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles affect sustainability.    (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.N.4.2:  Weigh the merits of alternative strategies for solving a specific societal problem by comparing a number of different costs and benefits, such as human, economic and environmental.

(DOK: High)


Unit 2: Nature of Matter, Kinetic Theory & the Gas Laws


Essential Learning: SC.912.L.18.12:  Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth’s suitability as an environment for life: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.    (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.8.1:  Differentiate among the four states of matter.     (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.8.2:  Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical change of matter.    (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.P.10.5:   Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.    (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.P.10.6:  Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example: chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulum.    (DOK: High)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.P.10.7:  Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical processes.

(DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning:  SC.912.P.12.10:  Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory.   (DOK: High)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.12.11:  Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic molecular theory.                             (DOK: Moderate)

Unit 3: Atomic Structure & the Periodic Table


Essential Learning: SC.912.L.15.2: Discuss the use of molecular clocks to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.     (DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.8.3: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing changes in the atomic model over time and why those changes were necessitated by experimental evidence.

(DOK: High)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.8.4: Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.

(DOK: High)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.8.5: Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.

(DOK: Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.10.9: Describe the quantization of energy at the atomic level.   (DOK:  Moderate)


Essential Learning: SC.912.P.10.18:  Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing and contrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.    (DOK: High)


Unit 4:  Bonding and Nomenclature


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