Instructional Development Timeline

The Cold War and the military race with the Soviet Union paved the way for more emphasis on math, science, and foreign language in order to compete. This decade also saw an influence of Cognitive Theory and Programmed Instruction

  • (1950) Alan Turing publishes Computing Machinery and Intelligence

  • (1954)B. F. Skinner publishes The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching
  • (1954) B. F. Skinner demonstrates at the University of Pittsburgh a machine designed to teach arithmetic, using an instructional program
  • (1954) John Flanagan - critical incident technique
  • (1954) Maslow introduces Heirarchy of Needs
  • Task Analysis
  • (1956)Benjamin Bloom - Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
  • (1957) The Soviet launch of Sputnik initiated federal funds to
    education in math and science
  • (1959) Roby Kidd publishes How Adults Learn
  • (1959) Wolfgang Kohler publishes Gestalt Psychology Today
  • Visual literacy gains attention of educators when TV seems to influence behavior

1954) John Flanagan

  • critical incident technique

Task Analysis

  • term first used by military to refer to procedures for anticipating the job requirements of new equipment under development

Programmed Instruction

  • Through B. F. Skinner work on his theory of reinforcement, the Programmed Instruction Movement was born. Prorammed Instruction was characterized by:
    • clearly stated objectives
    • small frames of instruction
    • self-pacing
    • active learner response to inserted questions
    • immediate feedback