- Jeroen J G van Merrienboer refines the Four-Component Instructional Design System (4C/ID-model) he developed early in 1992. The 4C/ID-model focuses on the integration and coordinated performance of task-specific constituent skills rather than on knowledge types, context or presentation-delivery media. The 4C/ID model is commonly associated with design and training programs focused on a very complex set of skills.
- David Wiley, develops Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory (LODAS). LODAS is the result of combining Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth, 1999), Work Model Synthesis (Gibbons, et al., 1995), Domain Theory (Bunderson, Newby, & Wiley, 2000), and the Four-Component Instructional Design model (van MerriŽnboer, 1997) with new work. LODAS also provides a taxonomy of five learning object types and provides design guidance for the different types of learning objects.e-learning.