Instructional Development Timeline
Mary Ward and Frederick Burk

Mary Ward and Frederick Burk advocated that learners should be able to progress at their own pace with little direction from their teachers and established the San Francisco Normal School using self-instructional materials.

  • self-instructional materials that allowed students to learn at their own pace
  • a California Court ruling halted their efforts stating that only the State Board of Education could publish printed instructional materials


SF Normal SchoolSan Francisco State Normal School 1903 - destroyed during the 1906 earthquake