Instructional Development Timeline

The Civil Rights Movement and the anti-Vietnam War sentiment gave way to curriculum changes that included compensatory education and Head Start programs. The federal government supported instructional development in the establishment of R&D laboratories, and large curriculum develoment projects. Lobbying to broaden the audiovisual (AV) field to encompass instructional technology came about.


  • (1961) Jerome Bruner publishes The Process of Education
  • (1962) Robert Miller- developed detailed task analysis procedures
  • (1962) Robert Mager publishes his book, “Preparing Instructional Objectives” in 1962. This book helped popularize the use of performance objectives by educators and others.
  • (1962) Robert Gagne published The Conditions of Learning
  • (1962) Robert Glasser employed the term instructional system and named, elaborated, and diagrammed its components including criterion-referenced measures - tests interpreted in terms of competencies mastered
  • (1962) The theories of Russian constructivist, Lev Vygotsky, were first published in the west.
  • Federal support increased for Instructional Development
  • (1965) Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
  • James Finn, Arthur Lumsdaine, et. al. - move Audio Visual field toward a design of instructional messages
  • (1963) the Keller Plan used for University college classes
  • (1966) Jerome Bruner’s model of Discovery Learning, publishes Toward a Theory of Instruction
  • (1969) McMaster University introduces problem-based learning in medical education